Breast cancer

March. 09,2021


Breast cancer is a phenomenon in which breast epithelial cells proliferate out of control under the action of a variety of carcinogenic factors. The early stage of the disease often manifests as breast lumps, nipple discharge, axillary lymphadenopathy and other symptoms. In the late stage, cancer cells may metastasize to a distance, and multiple organ diseases may appear, which directly threaten the life of the patient.

Breast cancer is often called the "pink killer", and its incidence ranks first among female malignant tumors. Male breast cancer is relatively rare. With the improvement of medical standards, breast cancer has become one of the solid tumors with the best curative effect

Epidemiology

According to the latest data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2018, the incidence of breast cancer in female cancers worldwide is 24.2%, ranking first among female cancers, of which 52.9% occur in developing countries.

Type of disease

Non-invasive carcinoma

Also known as carcinoma in situ, it means that the lesion is limited to the primary site without metastasis. It can be divided into lobular carcinoma in situ, ductal carcinoma in situ, and papillary eczema-like breast cancer, with a good prognosis. ?

Invasive carcinoma

Refers to the infiltration of cancer cells and extensive invasion of surrounding tissues, prone to metastasis of cancer. It is divided into invasive non-special cancer and invasive special cancer. The prognosis needs to be combined with other factors. Invasive non-specific cancer

Including invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, sclerocarcinoma, simple carcinoma, etc., this type is the most common, accounting for about 80%. Special Invasive Carcinoma

Including papillary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, adenoid cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, etc.

Other rare cancers

In addition to the above-mentioned common pathological types, there are some rare breast cancers. Pathological types are mostly derived from the tumor's microscopic features rather than its biological behavior, such as spindle cell carcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma.

Cause

The cause of breast cancer is still unclear. So far, scientists have not found the exact cause of breast cancer, but many high-risk factors related to the onset of breast cancer have been discovered. As high-risk factors for breast cancer continue to accumulate, their risk of disease will increase.

Basic cause

The breast is the target organ of a variety of endocrine hormones, among which estrone and estradiol are directly related to the incidence of breast cancer. Early menarche age (<12 years old), late menopause age (>55 years old), late infertility and first childbearing age (>30 years old), short breastfeeding time, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, etc., can be increased or extended The exposure of estrogen in the body is closely related to the onset of breast cancer.

In addition, genetic factors are also high-risk factors for breast cancer. Those with a history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives (such as parents, children, and siblings) have a risk of 2-3 times that of the general population. Some genetic mutations also increase the risk of breast cancer. In addition, certain physical factors, such as chest radiation therapy during childhood, are also pathogenic factors for breast cancer.